REACTION OF CAPSICUM SPECIES, HYBRIDS AND BREEDING LINES TO OBUDA PEPPER TOBAMOVIRUS (SYN: TOMATO MOSAIC TOBAMOVIRUS) |
Gabriella KAZINCZI, János KOVÁCS, András Péter TAKÁCS, József HORVÁTH
University of Veszprém, Georgikon Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Keszthely, Hungary (E-mail: H11895HOR@ELLA.HU)
Peppers (Capsicum spp.) originating from Mexico, Southern Peru and Bolivia are grown world-wide under various environmental and climatic conditions. Last decades pepper growing under glasshouse and tunnels achieved considerable results in Hungary. The consumption of our traditionally national product - sweet pepper - increases not only in Hungary but also abroad. Besides sweet pepper, red spice one is also an important national product in Hungary.
Among pathogens, viruses are one of the major limiting factors in successful pepper growing (Tiznado and Carrillo 2002). In Hungary 13 viruses have been isolated from pepper plants so far (Kazinczi et al. 2001). The extremely stable, mechanically transmissible tobamoviruses are found to be the major problems under glasshouse and tunnels, while the dominance of the aphid-borne cucumo- poty- and alfamoviruses were demonstrated in the open fields (Kiss 1996, Gáborjányi et al. 1997, Kálmán et al. 2000). Among tobamoviruses, a new one: Obuda pepper tobamovirus (ObPV) [Syn: Ob strain of tomato mosaic tobamovirus, (ToMV-Ob)] has been appeared in the 1980s, which has broken the resistance of pepper varieties, containing the L1 gene (Tóbiás et al. 1982, Csilléry et al. 1983). Resistance breeding is the most effective method against virus diseases. Since the 1980s, intensive research work started in order to study the response of different pepper varieties, breeding lines and wild Capsicum species to viruses in Hungary. Out of them new sources of resistance have been found (Horváth 1986, Kazinczi et al. 2001).
The objective of this study was to examine the reaction of 25 Capsicum species, hybrids and breeding lines to ObPV.
Materials and methods
Seeds of 25 Capsicum species, hybrids and breeding lines were sown in sterilized boxes in virological glasshouse. The seedlings were planted in plastic pots containing a soil mixture of sand (pH 6.96, humus% 0.27):peat (pH 6.78, humus% 9.98) 1:3. Seven plants of each species, +hybrids and breeding lines were mechanically inoculated with the Obuda pepper tobamovirus (ObPV). The inoculated plants were symptomatologically checked for virus infection. Five weeks after inoculation the samples were tested using direct double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS ELISA) serological method. Substrate absorbance was measured 20 minutes after adding the substrate at 405 nm wavelength on Labsystems Multiskan RC ELISA Reader. Test samples were considered positive, if their absorbance values exceeded twice those of the healthy control samples. To confirm the results of symptomatology and serology, back inoculation was also carried out to Nicotiana tabacum 'Xanthi-nc' (local host of ObPV) and 'Samsun' (systemic host of ObPV) as indicator plants.
Results and discussion
No breeding materials showing extreme resistance (immunity) have been found. Out of the Capsicum species, hybrids and breeding lines 12 proved to be susceptible to ObPV. Both local and systemic symptoms have been occurred and extinction values of the samples were similar, than those of the positive control. 13 samples showed hypersensitive reaction. Necrotic lesions have been developed on the infected leaves 2-4 days after inoculation, and later the infected leaves dropped, preventing the spreading of the virus inside the whole plants (Table 1). Plant resistance to virus infection expressed in the form of restricted movement of the virus has been described for many other host-virus relations (Nelson et al. 1993, Schaad and Carrington 1996, Derrick and Barker 1997).
It is concluded that 18/98F1, 18/98 F2, 4/99 F3, V-14 21/98, Capsicum testiculatum, C. chinense PI. 159234, C. annuum 'Criollo de Morelos', 255 Pritamin line, 5/96 C. testiculatum x Botond F2, 47/87 F7, 265 Red Chili, 411 C. annuum x C. frutescens and 419 Fűszer USA breeding materials could be used for breeding of resistance to ObPV. Regarding that mixed infections occur commonly in nature it could be worth to examine the reaction of breeding materials to other economically important viruses.
Table 1. Reaction of Capsicum species,hybrids and breeding lines to ObPV
*Nl, necrotic lesions; Mo, mosaic; Tn, top necrosis; D, death of the plant; Led, leaf deformation; Ye, yellowing; Bli, blistering; -, symptomless **S, susceptible; HR, hypersensitive reaction
| ||Symptoms (local/systemic)*||Absorbance||Back inoculation||Type of host-virus relation**|
|C.baccatum var. pendulum||Nl/Mo||1.511||+||S|
|C. chinense PI. 159234||Nl/-||0.189||-||HR|
|529 C. annuum 'Perennial'||-/Mo||1.664||+||S|
|C .annuum 'Criollo de Morelos'||Nl/-||0.204||-||HR|
|255 Pritamin line||Nl/-||0.169||-||HR|
|5/96 C. testiculatum x Botond F2||Nl/-||0.145||-||HR|
|413 C. frutescens x C. annuum||Nl/Tn,D||1.410||+||S|
|265 Red chili||Nl/-||0.212||-||HR|
|420 Fehér alma||-/Mo,Led||1.359||+||S|
|40/85 F6 Csípős fehér||Nl/Mo, Led||1.094||+||S|
|411 C. annuum x C. frutescens||Nl/-||0.228||-||HR|
|416 Santa Fe Grande||Nl/Mo, Ye, Led||1.340||+||S|
|419 Fűszer USA||Nl/-||0.206||-||HR|
|18/998 F1 Hattyú||Nl/-||0,187||-||HR|
|18/98 F1 Szép||Nl/-||0.202||-||HR|
|V-33||Nl/Mo, Bli, Led||0.998||+||S|
|35/98 F1||Nl/Mo, Bli, Led||1.420||+||S|
|5/99 F2||Nl/Led, Mo, Ye||1.397||+||S|
|Positive control|| ||1.521|| || |
|Negative control|| ||0.191|| || |
We would like to thank the Office for Academy Research Groups Attached to Universities and Other Institutes for their financial support.
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