Country report Bosnia and Herzegovina
Country report of Republika Srpska
Geographical position 42o06 - 45o03 N and 15o08 - 19o06 E
Total area 25.053 km2
Population 1.463 milion
Average family farm size 3.5 ha
Area under greenhouses - on average plastic houses encompasse aprox. 1.200 ha. All tipes of plastic house are included (low, medium-higd and high tunnels and greenhouses).
With regard to the climatic conditions, the climate of Republica Srpska is characterized by moderately continental warm summers and mild winters (northen parts - Banja Luka, Bijeljina). The sothern parts (Herzegovina-Trebinje) are under the influence of the Mediterranean climate.
Climate conditions in Republica Srpska are similar climate conditions in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Cosidering the climatic conditions of the region it can be concluded that vegetable prodiction requires additional heating systes (northern parts)> Additional heating may be considerably reduced in the south.
The production of some major crops (tomato, paprika,cucumber, watermelon, melon, egg/plant, cabbage, cauliflower amd potato)is traditional in the regions of Republika Srpska. It needs to be stressed that vegetable crops are primarly grown under were field conditions. During the past 15 years plastic foils as mulch and low tunnels were wieldy used in vegetable crop production. Medium high and high tunnels are muosty used for the production of seedlings only and to some part for commercial production.
Marceting of the vegetable crops produced represents in issue of major concern in the region, being pooly organized. This may be attributed to the large amounts of vegetable crops imported from other contries (Greece, Turkey etc.). This contributes to th sudden changes in the prices of some products. Domestic producers are unable to copealso known to be short of any stimulating financial support. In 2004. vegetable producers (although small in number) having contacts with processors for the first time granted stimulating resources.
Greenhouse vegetable production in the Republika Srpska
Vegetable crop production in plastic house systems, primarily low and medium/low tunnels has been significantly raised over the postwar period. This refers especially to the regions Banja Luka and Bijeljina. However, there are no precise statistical data on the area protect production vegetable as well as yields, achieved because the changes in the production are not beig monitored.
The major vegetable crops grown under plastic house conditions are tomato, melon, wathermelon, cucumber, somewhat less egg/plant and paprika. The production is primarily based on the mulch system of production.
Average yields achived of the production lines amount to 20-50 kg/m2 of tomatoes, 15-25 kg/m2 of cucumbers, etc.
The major plant diseases registered by the producers include> tomato and potato blight (Phitophtora infestans),alternaria leaf spot tomato and potato (Alternaria solani), down mildew of cucumber (Pseudoperonospora cubensis), powdery mildew og cocomber and wathermelon (Erisiphe cichoracearum). Lodging of seed plants due to Pitium sp, Rhisoctonia solani and Fusarium st is major problem in nursery stock production.
In additional, viral and bacterial disease pose the main problem in the production of some cultivars.
F1 hybrids and somewhat less cultivars (over 90% imported from the Netherlands, Germanu, etc are mostlu used in vegetable production.
The use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers is highly dependent on the financial capability of the producers.
Simpleand cheap wooden to a less extent aluminijum or iron construcions are used for greenhouses erection due to the comparatively high prices of the quality and modern materials. These objects are erected by the producers themselves on their own farms.
Moustly PE folio is used for covering the construction.
The ventilation sustem is based on the open air ventilation from the front grennhouses.
The size oh the medium-high and high tunnels and plastic houses ranges from 100-1000 m2.
Currently the drop/by/drop system of irrigation is used in both plastic houses and tunnels.
The average price of a 100-200 m2 greenhouses ranged from 20-30 KM/m2.
Education of the producers
Curently the producers knowledge with regard to the use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides is rather poor. The development of an extension service is expected to contribute to the enhancement of the required skills in plastic house vegetable production.